Company Name - Company Message
David has recently received this email from Ohio, USA about our unusual church bell which, as you can read, is of Javan origin. If anyone can help Maria please contact her at the address given below. 
Happy reading!

Dear Reverend Roscoe,
I should start by introducing myself. I am an ethnomusicologist, currently writing a book about the development of Indonesian music in England, particularly the bronze gong-chime ensemble called gamelan, and I have a question about your famous Javanese bell - I hope you don't mind me getting in touch.

I was wondering - do you have any idea who is currently researching the origins of the bell? I noticed that on your web page it is mentioned that people are working on discovering more about its origins in England, Netherlands and Java, and I'd love to find out more about their work, to cite in my book, if possible. If you had any further information about the bell, or contacts of researchers that I could ask, I'd be very grateful if you wouldn't mind passing this on to me - it's a fascinating historical connection with Java!

As an aside, I used to work for the Hallé Orchestra, leading music projects on their set of Javanese gamelan, and in 1995 I had a great project at an ATC in Blackburn, where I met the vicar of your church, and had a brief chat about your bell. It's been a long time, and I'm afraid I forgot his name  - was it you, by any chance? If so, hello after a very long time!

All best wishes,
Maria Mendonca
Maria Mendonca
Associate Prof. in Asian Music and Culture
Anthropology and Music Departments
Kenyon College
Gambier, OH 43022

Campanalogical Conundrums: 
a History of Three Javanese Bells

In: Archipel. Volume 48, 1994. pp. 13-31.
Amrit Gomperts P. Carey
Citer ce document / Cite this document :
Gomperts Amrit, Carey P. Campanalogical Conundrums: a History of Three Javanese Bells. In: Archipel. Volume 48, 1994. pp. 13-31.
doi : 10.3406/arch.1994.2997

Amrit GOMPERTS and Peter CAREY
Campanalogical Conundrums:

A History of Three Javanese Bells*

A chance letter from a Lancashire vicar about the origins of his rather unusual church bell led to the discovery of its eighteenth-century Gresik origins. Based on a careful deciphering of the bell's three-line Javanese inscription, the present article speculates on its history, its symbolic significance for the eighteenth-century Gresik Bupatis who ordered its casting, the reasons for its presentation to the local Dutch Civil Commissioner in 1790, and the manner oaf its subsequent plunder by the British during the Napoleonic Wars. The article then compares the Gresik bell to two other bells cast in Java and Madur
in the early nineteenth century, the 'Cakraningrat Bell' made on the orders of a ruler of the court of Bangkalan in western Madura in 1840 to celebrate the granting of a Dutch knightly order {ridder orde), and a Surakarta bell crea tedat the behest of a senior court official with close links to both the Mangku- negaran and Kasunanan (Kraton Surakarta) in 1803.
An analysis of Javanese and European influences on bell casting technique and embellishment in this period, leads on to a brief resume of the function of bells in Javanese musical history since the Hindu-Javanese period, and a consideration ot the manufacturing techniques of Javanese gong smiths through to the mid-nineteenth century. The article concludes that the Gresik and Bangkalan bells were the products of the celebrated gong smithies and gun foundries of Gresik which flourished between c. 1730 and c. 1840, which are today only dimly remembered in local place names in the Gresik area.
The Gresik Bell (1754/1790)
In September 1989, after having received a letter from the vicar of the Immanuel Feniscowles Parish Church of the Anglican parish of Feniscowles in Blackburn, Lancashire, Peter Carey journeyed north from Oxford to make an interesting discovery: the swinging church bell with clapper in this parish
14 Amrit Gomperts & Peter Carey
church (see Plate 1), which had long been thought to be of Coptic Christian origin, was in fact Javanese with an inscription which linked it to the late- eighteenth-century Bupati of Gresik (see Plate 2). According to local parish sources, the bell had come into the hands of Major Sir William Fielden (1779- 1867), a local cotton magnate, ex-army officer and builder of Feniscowles church, who had served in the Mediterranean and Middle East during the Napoleonic Wars (1799-1802/1803-15). It was known that it had been trans ported by sea and canal for the church's consecration in 1836, and it was ini tially thought from the inscription that Sir William had obtained it from a Coptic Christian community in the Middle East during his war service ^).
Peter Carey's initial researches proved beyond any doubt that the bell and its inscription were Javanese. After much careful deciphering - for the inscrip tionwas badly worn in many places - the following three-line transcription was made:
Line 1: gantha puniki winastan Pun Lingga-Swara, kawangunan Kangjeng Kyai Tumenggung Jayanegara ing Nagari Tandhes,, sampuniki wardi ing din- ten Jumungah tanggal ping s[e]lawé sasi Jumadilakir taun Dal ing mangsa awaling Dhestha,, asangkala warni swara kareng-
Line 2: -ngé jalma angkaning warsa, 16 7 9,, loncèng puniki ing mangké sampun resak, dados kawangun malih dhateng Bupati Kasepuhan, Kyai
Tumenggung Arjanagara,, [a]w[i]t [talang] disukakfajken dhateng Loji Tandhes kala Tuwan Pétor Mister Antuniyus
Line 3: Sawènkèh,, kala kaserat ing dinten Senèn tanggal ping walulékur sasi Sawal ing taun Ehé,, asangkala ébah ing jalma kaswarèng mandra,, angka ningwarsa, 1716 (2\
In English translation, this reads:
Line 1: 'This bell has been called Pun Lingga-Swara («The Image of Sound»). It was made for the Honourable Kyai Tumenggung Jayanegara of Gresik (3). Now its [chronological] meaning was given as Friday, the twenty- fifth of the lunar month Jumadilakir in the [fifth-] year [of the eight-year windu cycle] Dal at the beginning of the solar month Dhestha, with the chro nogram: «the shape of sound has been heard»'
Line 2: ' by man», numerical equivalent of the [Javanese] year 1 6 7 9 [19 April 1754] (4). This bell was later damaged, but was recast again by the Bupati of the Kasepuhan [ie the senior Bupati of Gresik], the Honourable Kyai Teumernggung Arjanagara. As an advance payment, this bell was presented to the [Dutch] Residency {Loji) of Gresik at the time of Tuwan Civil Commission
étor] Meester Anthonius'
Line 3: 'Schwenke. The time of this writing was Monday the twenty-eighth of the [lunar] month Sawal in the [second] year [of the eight-year windu cycle] Ehé, with the chronogram: «the movements of man are known [to precipitate] wandering», numerical equivalent of the [Javanese] year 1 71 6 [12 July 1790].

Plate 1. Immanuel Feniscowles Parish Church of the Anglican Parish of Feniscowles in Blackburn, Lancashire, England (Courtesy of the Reverend John Crée MA, Vicar of Feniscowles); the Gresik bell kept in it.

16 Amrit Gomperts & Peter Carey
The inscription gives us a useful starting point from which to begin to assess the history of this remarkable artefact. First, the bell's title - 'Pun Ling- ga-Swara' - clearly reflects the nomenclature of Javanese gamelan such as 'Kyai Mardi-Swara' ('Venerable Attached to Sound'), a double gamelan at the Mankunegaran court dating from c. 1870 (Kunst 1973: I 245, 279), and 'Kyai Arjaswara' ('Venerable Sound of Prosperity'), a former Surakarta kraton gamelan now in private ownership in Solo which also dates from c. 1870. The High Javanese (krama) personal pronoun 'Pun' (Low Javanese [ngoko]: 'Si') was generally in use in the honorific titles of gamelan before about 1800, although, from the mid-eighteenth century, the more respectful (and masculi netit)le'Kyai'('Venerable')wasincreasinglyattachedtogamelannames. Already at this time individual gong instruments and other pusaka (heir looms), deemed to be particularly sacred, were referred to by the title 'Kyai' (5). It thus seems likely that from the time of its first casting - and Gresik was renowned at this time for its foundries (Raffles 1817: I 296) - this bell was held in high esteem.
All the individuals named in the inscription can also be identified. There were two lines of Bupati in Gresik at this time - the 'Kasepuhan' (senior regent line) and the 'Kanèman' (junior regent line) - the split having already occurred by the mid-eighteenth century when the names of Kyai Tumenggung Jayanegara and Kyai Tumenggung Puspanegara II as senior and junior Bupati respectively are mentioned in local histories (6\ According to the Babad Gre sik(KITLV Or 258: 21; LOr 6842: 166), Jayanegara was born in AJ 1602 (1679/80) and died in AJ 1682 (1756/57), and a Dutch source (Hageman 1864: 260) mentions that he took up his office in 1746 (7\ More abundant - and reliable - data exist for the second Bupati mentioned - Kyai Tumenggung Arjanegara - who succeeded his father, Kyai Tumenggung Tirtadireja (alias Tirtareja), as senior regent in 1774 (Kromodjojo Adinegoro 1925: 254) (8\ and retired on health grounds in May 1803 after thirty-two years in office (9) when he was succeeded by his son, Kyai Tumenggung Arjaadinegara (Kro modjojo Adinegoro 1925: 255). Even in retirement, however, he was still acti ve:the gateway of the cemetery of the cadet line of Gresik Bupati bears his name and the date AJ 1734 (1807/8), by which time his title had been elevated to that of 'Kyai Adipatï (Ambary 1986: 31). According to the Babad Gresik (LOr 6842: 168), he died four years later (AJ 1738, ie 1811/12) full of honours and years.
Turning to the Dutch civil commissioner (pétor), Anthonius Schwenke, mentioned in the inscription, Dutch sources indicate that he held office in Gresik from 1787 to 1793 (Hageman 1864: 251) during which time we know that he was active in the dispatch of cannon and ammunition via the Benga- wan Sala to the Central Javanese courts, then helping the Dutch to defend Java against a possible French invasion (10). The title 'Meester' accorded him in the inscription was a common one often given to senior European officials by the Javanese (see Carey 1992: 457 n.274). The inscription, in fact, refers to him by his Portuguese-derived title of 'pétor' (Port, 'feitor'; Eng. 'factor'), which at this time was equivalent to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) rank of

„ my _ _ ... .. .„..._ i

Left: Plate 2. The Radyopustoko bell. Museum Radyopustoko, Su Right: Plate 3. The Bangkalan bell. Museum Nasional, Jaka

1 8 Amrit Gomperts & Peter Carey
Onderkoopman (Junior Merchant). He would have been the principal Euro pean official in Gresik at this time, the 'civiele gezaghebbef (civil commiss ioner), a title which was later changed during the British occupation (1811- 16) to 'Collector-Resident' (post- 1826, Assistant-Resident under the Residen cyofSurabaya)(GerickeandRoorda1901:II269;Hageman1864:251-2; Quarles van Ufford 1860: 121, 130).
The phrase 'as an advance payment' (awit talang) is rather puzzling, but in
the deeply corrupt world of the late-eighteenth century VOC, soon (1799) to experience liquidation at the hands of the new Dutch Republic, such cash advances in return for services rendered or to be rendered were not uncom mon.Carel van Naerssen, a later civiele gezaghebber/Resiâent of Gresik (in office, 1799-1808; 1813-16, died 1821), a man famous for his ill-gotten wealt h,isknowntohavemadeprofitsoutoflendingmoneyathighinterestto local Javanese chiefs (De Haan 1935: 619). Realising the interest of Dutch officials in Javanese artefacts, a later Bupati of Gresik, Kyai Adipati Bratane- gara, attempted to donate, on his deathbed, a complete gamelan to the highest Dutch official in the land, Governor-General G.A.G.Ph. Baron van der Capel- len (in office, 1816-26), a gift which was later returned by the Resident of Gresik to his heir (n\ We know that during the British period, the same Carel van Naerssen, aware that Raffles (in office as Lieutenant-Governor, 1811-16) was on the hunt for Javanese gamelan and curios, arranged to send him 'curio sities(gamelan, sana [rose] wood)' and purchased 'gold dust and gold bars for the sum of 8,000 [rix dollars; 1 rd = 45p in 1811 values]' on his behalf to be taken to England by his adjutant, Captain Thomas Otto Travers (1785-1844) in March 1814 (De Haan 1935: 619; Bastin 1992: 3). It could be that the Gre sik bell, which now hangs in Feniscowles, was part of the same shipment taken by Travers. However, there are no known connections between its later owner, Sir William Fielden, and any of the British officers who served in Java at this time. Perhaps a more plausible explanation is that it was taken as booty from the Gresik Residency House {Loji) in December 1807 at the time of Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew (later First Viscount Exmouth's) (1757- 1833) blockade of the Madura Straits when the remnants of Vice-Admiral Pie- ter Hartsinck's fleet were destroyed in the roads of Surabaya and Gresik (11 December), and troops were landed to demolish the shore batteries and defences at both ports (DNB 1909: XV 714; Carey 1992: 35). Pellew attacked with eight warships (frigates), which together mounted 270 cannon, and took temporary possession of Gresik and its Residency House at this time, and almost certainly carried away moveable objects as prize for distribution amongst the officers and men of his squadron (Faber 1931: 30-32), just as Raffles later gutted the Yogyakarta kraton when it fell to a British force in June 1812 (Carey 1992: 87-88, 237-8, 281, 414 n.80). It is interesting to note that Pellew was later (1811-14) appointed as commander-in-chief of British naval forces in the Mediterranean where his path would have crossed with Sir William Fielden, then serving as an army officer in the same area (DNB 1909: XV 714).

A history of three Javanese bells 19
Before the fortunes of war brought the bell to England and the belfry of a
Lancashire parish church, it certainly hung in the Gresik Residency House. The long-lived Kyai Tumenggung Arjanegara, a typical Javanese with a myst ical belief in the power of good omens, had secured by his gift or judicious 'advance payment' to the Dutch gezaghebber, a neat magical trick: he had got the bell, which mentioned the name of the ancestral founder of his Bupati's line and his own name in Javanese script, installed in the Loji, thus ensuring that his family and successors would maintain long-term links with the Resi dency office. If ever again the Javanese Bupati dynasties of Gresik were faced with political difficulties - and these were troubled times of war both in Euro peandJava-thepusakabell'PunLingga-Swara'wouldbeaguaranteeof slamet (good fortune and prosperity) for the Arjanegaran family in the Kase- puhan house. We can discern something of the same logic in the behaviour of members of the Yogyakarta court towards senior European officials in the same period when Pakualam I (r. 1812-29) presented a pusaka manuscript to the victorious Raffles after the fall of the kraton in June 1812 (Carey 1992: 96, 250-51), and the first Sultan (Mangkubumi, r. 1749-92) swapped unoffi ciawlives(selir)withtheGovernoroftheNortheastCoast,NicolaasHartingh (in office, 1754-61) after the Giyanti settlement of February 1755 (Carey
1992: 97, 252-3). What is almost certain, in the Gresik case, is that no Dutch manwould have been versed enough in Javanese ways to have discerned the inner logic of the Bupati's gift. The bell was too heavy (c. 130 kgs) and high (c. 50 cms) to permit much mobility (one wonders how Admiral Pellew ever transported it to his boats) and its function in the Residency office would have been akin to that of church bells in Europe or ships bells on board the Euro pean battle fleets, marking that most Western of preoccupations - time.
The Cakraningrat Bell (1840)
Impressive as the Gresik bell is, there are at least two other bells cast in
Java and Madura in the early nineteenth century with which it can be compar edT.hefirstoftheseistheso-called'CakraningratBell'namedafterSultan
Cakra-adiningrat II (r. 1815-47) of the court of Bangkalan in Western Madura (Palmer van den Broek 1875: 295; Kamar 1926: 249), which is now part of the Museum Pusat collection in Jakarta (see Plate 3). Standing about one and a half metres high, it has an intricate four-fold decoration on each side, consis tingof a crown (top), cakra (centre) and Dutch-style medal (bottom) flanked by floral ornaments. The cakra (arrow head set in a round bevelled frame) is the armourial weapon of the Cakraningrat family, and the Dutch medal depic tedisthatofRidderindeOrdevandeNederlandsLeeuw(Commanderofthe Order of the Dutch Lion), which had been conferred on the Sultan by King William I of the Netherlands (r. 1813-40) on 22 August 1831 (13 Rabingula-
wai AJ 1759) (Palmer van den Broek 1877: 161).
The one-line Javanese inscription reads as follows:
'Punika yasa-Dalem Ingkang Sinu[hu]n Kangjeng Sultan Cakra-adiningrat

20 Amrit Gomperts & Peter Carey
kakaping kalih, Mendur dhèr Ordeh saking ing Niderlans Liyu,, loncèng ageng [ajwrat wulung rembat kaparingan nami Kyai Lindhu,, dinten Senèn kaping 27 Dulkijah sangkala sura [swara] oyad [oyag] sabdaning prabu,, 1 7 16]7.
'[This bell] has been made for Sultan Cakra-adiningrat II, Commander of the Order of the Netherlands Lion. The bell weighs eight rembat [ng: 'pikuV; c. 500 kgs.] and has been named Venerable Earthquake [Kyai Lindhu]. [The date was] Monday, 27 Dulkijah [and] the chronogram, 'sounds quiver the words of the king', [AJ] 1 7 [6] 7 (2 March 1840)'.
This inscription is interesting in that it specifically commemorates - and this is underscored pictorially by the medal ornament - the commandership {ridder orde) conferred by the Dutch king nine years earlier, the honour for which Sultan Cakra-adiningrat had long been yearning as part of his quest to be recognized as a direct vassal of the Netherlands monarch (Hageman 1858: 21). Contemporary gamelan do carry inscriptions - that of Sultan Cakra-adi ningraItI bears the text: 'punika kagungan-Dalem gamelan salindru pusaka, awasta Kyai Retnam-Nila // s[e]kar kedhaton, ingkang anukani nami Kang-
jeng Sultan Cakra-adiningrat, // ingkang kaping kalih, 1 7 5 0\ 'This royal heirloom gamelan slendro has been named Venerable Sir Luminous Jewel [Kyai Retna-[Dum]ilah], [and] this flower of the court was given its title by Sultan Cakra-adiningrat II in AJ 1750 (1822/23)' (12>. But it is significant that there are no known gamelan inscriptions which make any reference to the Europeans and their culture. This would seem to indicate that their makers
saw them existing primarily in a Javanese world, symbols of a musical tradi tion which owed nothing to the West. The Gresik and Cakraningrat bells, however, contrive to blend both Javanese and European elements, indicating perhaps that they existed, in the Javanese view, in a mestizo colonial world which derived much from both cultures.
As was the case with the Gresik bell, the name of Cakra-adiningrat IF s creation resembles the title of particularly revered gamelan instruments. Thus the inscription of a gong belonging to the Pakualaman court in Yogyakarta and cast in 1879 bears the name 'Kyai Lindhu-Panori* ('Venerable Earthquake Countenance') (13\ The great weight of the bell (c. 500 kgs.) - over three times that of its Gresik predecessor - raises a question as to where it might possibly have hung in the old court of Bangkalan which boasted no structures capable of housing it. Perhaps, it was never intended for functional purposes, but was cast from the first as a monster pusaka and ornament to celebrate the Sultan's Dutch-bestowed ridder ordel
The Radyopustoko Bell (1803)
The Radyopustoko bell is a small bell about forty centimetres high and weighing some 31 kilograms without a clapper, which is now housed in the Museum Radyopustoko (municipal museum) collection in Surakarta (see Plate 4). Like the Gresik and Cakraningrat bells, it has a Javanese inscription:
Line 1: 'Punika loncèng ingkang yasa Radèn Tumenggung Puspakusuma ing-

Plate 4. Detail of a 1944 US Army map. The village of Gending (Gendhing), a few miles south of the centre of Gresik.

22 Amrit Gomperts & Peter Carey
kang kaping kalih, ingkang nginya putrané Pangéran [AJriya Mangkunegara,, Radèn Tumeng-
Line 2: '-gung ingkang rumiyin nama Radèn Tanaya, nunten kamantu dha- teng Pangéran Mangkunegara Lelana Jayamisésa, kaparingan nama Radèn
Su ryadiwijaya, ,
Line 3: 'nunten dados Kliwon Gedhong Kiwa,, nunten dados Wadana Kepa- rak Kiwa,, ing dinten Kemis Wage tanggal ping [1]^*)
Line 4: 'wulan Rabingulakir taun Jimakir, angka [1 7 3] 0,,^à sinengkalan [kosong] wigunanifng] pandhitaning ratu,, Kyai Amad Sari kang agawé,,' Top: 'wawrat 500 [gèdhèng?]'.
which in English reads as follows:
Line 1: 'This bell has been made (on the orders of) Radèn Tumenggung Pus- pakusuma II, who is the adopted son of Pangéran Ariya Mangkunegara (I, r. 1757-95). The Radèn Tumenggung'
Line 2: 'previously had the name of Radèn Tanaya. Then, after becoming the son-in-law of Pangéran Mangkunegara, the Wandering and Ever-Victorious one {Lelana Jayamisésa), he was granted the name of Radèn Suryadiwijaya.' Line 3: 'he became the Kliwon of the Gedhong Kiwa (Royal Treasury /Househ old).Later, he became the Wedana of the Keparak Kiwa (Captain of the royal bodyguard; lit: 'Head of the Watchers on the Left'). On Thursday Wage, the [first] of the'
Line 4: 'lunar month Rabingulakir in the (eighth year of the eight-year windu cycle) Jimakir, (AJ 1730), with the chronogram '(empty) are the skills of the priests of the king' (21 July 1803), Kyai Amad-Sari ('Venerable Servant of Flowers') was made'.
Top: '500 (gèdhèngl: c. 31 kgs.)'.
Radèn Tumenggung Puspakusuma IPs position as Wedana Keparak Kiwa of the Surakarta kraton is confirmed in another contemporary source (16), and
it was in this capacity that he escorted Raffles on an official visit from Sur akarta to Yogyakarta on 8-12 December 1813 (Carey 1992: 176, 178, 371-73, 500 n.490, 503 n.503). The 'wandering' (lelana) epithet is frequently associa tewdithMangkunegaraI(RadènMasSaid),thusoneofhispusakaswords (pedhang) is said to have born the dedication 'Jeng Gusti Pangéran Adipati kang rawuh saking lelana' ('His Lordship the Pangéran Adipati who returned from his wanderings') (17\ and it occurs too in the inscription of the double Mangkunegaran gamelan 'Kyai Kanyut-Mèsem' ('Venerable Attempted to Smile') which refers to 'Pangéran Dipati kang lalana, 17 0 0' ('The Pangé ranAdipati who went on his wanderings, AJ 1700 [1774/75]') <18). Indeed, the phrase 'Lelana Jayamisésa' was part of the nom de guerre which Mangkuneg arI(athenstillknownasRadènMasSaid)adoptedin1745duringhiscam paigns in the Panambangan area to the east of Surakarta when he really was a Javanese knight errant - 'Sultan Adiprakasa Lalana Jayamisésa' (Pringgodig- do 1950: 354). By drawing out a direct comparison with the inscription of a gamelan at the court (the Kasunanan) at which Puspakusuma was serving at this time, it shows just how much more elaborate and loaded with individual expression the bell's actual inscription is (19).

A history of three Javanese bells 23
Of all the three bells, that of the Radyopustoko is the most truly Javanese in both dimensions and textual inscription - it refers neither to Europeans nor
their culture, and is a world away from the unctuous embellishments of the Cakraningratan. Encapsulated in four pithy lines is the career history of a senior court official, Radèn Tumenggung Puspakusuma II, who started out as a man of lower nobility, a mere 'Radèn', was raised by Mangkunegara I and ultimately became his son-in-law when he married one of his daughters, Ben- dara Radèn Mas Ajeng Suliyah, by an unofficial wife (garwa ampéyari), Nyai Ajeng Kertasari (Soemahatmaka 1973: 7). This marriage apparently earned him a new name, that of Radèn Suryadiwijaya. Then, suddenly, the text seems to forget all about his Mangkunegaran connections, and switches to talk about his official positions (Kliwon Gedhong Kiwa (20\ Wedana Keparak Kiwa) at the other Surakarta court, the Kraton Surakarta (Kasunanan). This shows just how fascinating and complex Javanese history can be: an adopted son of Mangkunegara I, later his son-in-law, takes service at a rival royal court, where he rises to a position of great seniority while still - ostensibly - acknowl edging his close family relationship with the Mangkunegaran. Perhaps the situation would become clearer if we knew something more about his ances torsand his real father, who may well have been an official of the Kasunanan. Certainly, this process of 'lending' (pinèt) well-born children between prince
ilies was a common one at this time, and there is another documented case of a close relative of Pakubuwana IV being brought in the Mangkunegar
d only returning to Kraton Surakarta after Mangkunegara I' s death in 1795 (Carey and Houben, 1987: 30).
It seems unlikely that this bell ever hung in the Surakarta kraton given the very personal nature of the inscription highlighting as it does the individual aspects of Puspakusuma' s career and his relationship to his father-in-law, Mangkunegara I, and the lack of any mention of his present sovereign, Paku buwana IV (r. 1788-1820). Revered objects - particularly those deemed hei rlooms (pusaka) - in court collections usually refer to the magnificence and glory of the ruler or his ancestors (see n.19 above). It is more probable that the bell was used in Puspakusuma' s own residence (dalem) and had a particul arfunctionduringfamilyceremoniesandslametan(religiousfeasts).Perhaps the Radèn Tumenggung had made himself his own pusaka after he had reach edacertainrankinsteadofacompletegamelanset,whichhemaynothave been able to afford. The name of this bell - as with those of its Gresik and Cakraningrat counterparts - is evocative of well-known gamelan such as 'Kyai Pengawé-SarV ('Venerable Waver of Flowers'), a gamelan sléndro of the Pakualaman court dating from c. 1811-25, and 'Kyai Guntur-SarV ('Venerable Thunder of Flowers'), a gamelan pélog of the Yogyakarta kraton and also the name of the revered gamelan sekati of the Kasunanan (Kraton Surakarta), both of which had been cast before the Radyopustoko bell. Another peculiarity is the use of the gèdhèng weight measure in the inscription since it would nor mally have been more appropriate to use the term katV, namely, 'fifty katV (31 kgs.), as was usual for bronze gamelan instruments at this time (Kunst 1973: 1 136, 266).

24 Amrit Gomperts & Peter Carey
Bells in Javanese Musical History
Only the Gresik inscription uses the Sanskrit derived Old Javanese word for bell - 'ganthd1 (see further Zoetmulder 1982: I 489). However, all three bell inscriptions mention the Modern Javanese 'loncèng'. In his excellent monograph on Hindu-Javanese musical instruments, Jaap Kunst (1968: 55; see
also 1973: I 107-8, 110; II 416-8, 423) made a distinction between various types of bell and their respective function. The Hindu-Javanese prototypes to which the three bells considered in this article correspond were used either as
large temple bells, or as smaller signalling instruments for religious ceremon ieso:neoftheHindu-Javanesebellsofcomparabledimensionandweightto the Gresik and Radyopustoko bells is the Kalasan bell, which is presumed to have originated from a ninth-century Buddhist monastery near Candhi Kalasan (Yogyakarta) (Bosch 1929: 149-51). Neither Hindu-Javanese nor Modern Javanese bells were used as musical instruments (Taylor 1989: 36), and there are no musical ensembles, either presently extant or referred to in historical
documents, in which bells were used as part of the balungan (lit: 'frame', 'skeleton') - the instruments which set out, or punctuated, a melodic line. They appear rarely in Javanese gamelan as loose bells, like the Sundanese (West Java) plantation gamelan described by De Vale (1977: 69, 71) and the Gresik gamelan pélog referred to by Suryabrata (1987: 207), or as bell-trees in archaic gamelan (Kunst 1973: I 184-5, 261). Indeed, we can assume that these three bells represent something of a renaissance of the old art of Hindu-Java
Gong Smiths and Bell Casting
Another method of verifying the quintessential Javaneseness of the three bells is to compare their shape with that of European bells. After examining them, the Dutch bell specialist, Dr André Lehr, has concluded that none of these three bells have a European shape. Although the crown of the Bangkalan bell betrays some Dutch influence, the actual shape of the bell itself cannot be found in either the Northern or Southern Netherlands (21\ Indeed, sound spec trum analysis of the Gresik bell reveals that its pitch is significantly diffferent from European bells (22\
From time immemorial in Java, gong smiths have manufactured the bronze instruments for gamelan orchestras, but the sheer weight of the Gresik and Bangkalan bells (c. 150 kgs. and c. 500 kgs.) greatly exceeded their usual limit of 75 kgs. for gong ageng. A bell also usually vibrates at a different pitch from gongs or kenong (large chimes). The main difference in the casting technique lies in the way the large quantities of metal are handled and the cooling process used. Bronze gamelan instruments are cast first and once they have acquired their outline shape are then submerged in water while still red hot. After the water has cooled the metal, cold hammering then completes the original casting process by forging their final finish. Both the water cooling and the cold hammering cause internal tensions in the metal which eventually produce the distinctive sound and vibrational chracteristics of a Javanese gong

A history of three Javanese bells 25
(cf. Fletcher and Rossing 1991: 564-66). Some filing and additional hammer ingarenecessarytocompletethemanufacturingprocess(JacobsonandHas- selt 1907). Large bells were usually cast in their final shape at the initial stage, and then allowed to cool very slowly in order to avoid cracks in the vibrating metal body. There is no real difference between the copper-tin alloy (bell bronze (23)) used for casting European bells, and the tembaga (locally forged bronze) used in Javanese gamelan instruments (24>. The only craftsmen who were able to assist the gong smiths in casting large bells, with their huge mass of brass alloys and slow cooling processes, were gun manufacturers. The eighteenth-century Babad ing Sangkala, a Kartasura chronicle, refers to the cooperation between gamelan makers {gendhing) and other skilled smiths (pandhé) in the manufacture of a cannon, *Kyai Gunturgenï, in AJ 1566 (1644/45) (Ricklefs 1978: 44-45), and it is known that joint manufacturing between gong smithies and gun foundries existed throughout Javanese history. Indeed, some of the very best craftsmen in both fields were to be found in Gresik, where fine gamelan were made and large cannon cast for exportation (Raffles 1817: I 296, 471). In particular, the Gresik gamelan with their uni quely decorated frames and stands, and the superb sound quality of their bron zeinstruments,canbefoundalloverthearchipelagointhecourtsofCentral Java (Yogyakarta and Surakarta), Madura (Bangkalan), and Banjarmasin, Kutei and Pasir in Kalimantan (Borneo) (25). It seems that the heyday of gamelan (and gun) manufacture in Gresik lasted from c. 1730 to c. 1840. Today, even the memory of this great local tradition has faded in the minds of the present-day inhabitants of Gresik, and there are no longer any gong smiths or foundries. However, both the armaments foundries and gong smithies are remembered in the village place names marked in later maps of the town: thus 'Bedhilan' (lit. 'the place of the guns') can be found adjacent to the present- day harbour in a US military map of 1944 (Plate 5), a mute memorial of Gres ik's past as Java's pre-eminent armaments centre, and the old gong smiths' quarter - Gendhingan (Jacobson and Hasselt 1907: 3 n.l) - is still remembered in the name 'Gending' three kilometres south of the city (Plate 5). This was ethe vdillage where the old export gamelan and the Gresik bell were manufactur
n the late eighteenth century. The huge Bangkalan bell of 1840 was their last testimony.
* The authors would like to thank the following for their help with this article: Pro fessor John Bastin, Rev. John Crée (Vicar of Feniscowles), R.T. Darmodipuro (Museum Radyopustoko), Dr Jaap Erkelens, Mr M.G.H.A. de Graaff (Rijksar- chief), Mrs Rens Heringa, Mr Peter Hodgkinson (Feniscowles), Mr Machfudi Mangkudilaga (Arsip Nasional), Mr Robin Marsden (Pleasington), Dra Suhardini (Museum Pusat), Mr Sukri (Museum Pusat), and Drs A. de Vries Robbé.
1. Immanuel Feniscowles Parish Church, 'The Origins of the Church Bell', mimeo, 1991.
2. This transliteration was done from photographs and the text was very faint. In par-

26 Amrit Gomperts & Peter Carey
ticular, the phrase 'awit talcing' in the second line is unclear. From the various
consonant and vowel combinations (k/t/l) + (a/é/è) + (k/t/l) + (a) + (o/ng) only the word 'talang' makes sense. From the sense of the entire sentence, we would
expect the first word to be an adverb, preposition or conjunctive. There are two semi-decipherable aksara of which the first seems to be 'wa' and the latter the
stopped lt[a]'. The wulu ('/') is, however, lacking. With regard to this combinat
only word which makes sense is 'awit1.
3. The High Javanese (krama) form 'Tandhes' was used throughout eighteenth-centu
nese literature to refer to the Low Javanese (ngoko) 'Gresik'. Today, Tandhes is a small village/suburb a few miles south of the present-day centre of
4. According to Rouffaer (1927) and Balai Poestaka (1932: 12) 25 Jumadilakir A[nno] J[avano] 1679, fell on Thursday, 18 April 1754, and not Friday (19 April).. Despite the existence of reasonably accurate conversion tables, there are often dif ficulties in converting Javanese dates to dates in the Christian (Gregorian calen dar)era, not least because the Javanese day date changes at dusk (6 p.m.) on the
previous day of the Christian calendar, and our day date changes at midnight. For the purposes of the present article, we are assuming that, for the Javanese, the calendar weekday was more important than the numerical month date. We have adhered to this system throughout provided the difference between the nearest Javanese calendar weekday and the Christian (Gregorian) calendar date is not more than two days.
5. Names of especially sacred (kramat) gamelan or individual musical instruments at the Central Javanese courts are often referred to by the title 'Kangjeng Kyaï ('Venerable Sir'). Occasionally, and only in the Surakarta kraton (Kasunanan), individual names of gamelan instruments have been denoted by the feminine word for 'KyaV, namely, lNyai\ For example: 'kendhang Kangjeng Nyai Dénok\ 'kend- hang Kangjeng Nyai Sablu', 'gong Nyai Gerah-Kapaf. Sadly, all these instr uments were lost in the great fire in the Surakarta kraton on 31 January 1985.
6. KITLV Or 258 (Babad Gresik), p. 151, p. 157.
7. The dates given in the Babad Gresik are not totally reliable: thus, it mentions AJ 1626 (1702/3) as the date when Jayanegara assumed office as Bupati of Gresik, a date which is compromised by the data given in Schrieke (1955: II 159-60) who, quoting a contemporary VOC source, states that there was only one Tumenggung, and one Ngabèhi, in Gresik in 1709. This still seemed to be the case up to 1725
(see Ricklefs 1993: 165-66, 169, 214-5, 332 n.55). It is possible there is a confu sionhere between Kangjeng Kyai Tumenggung Jayanegara I (Jimat), the founder of the Jayanegaran (Arjanegaran) line in the early eighteenth century, and his des cendant, Kyai Tumenggung Jayanegara II, who is referred to in the present ins cription and who held office in the mid-eighteenth century. Hageman's (1864) dates of the Gresik regents (Bupati) are also largely incorrect.
8. The Babad Gresik (LOr 6842, p.167) mentions the date AJ 1697 (1771/72). Hage- man (1864: 260) gives the date 1786 which is certainly incorrect.
9. Hageman (1864: 260) gives the date of Kyai Tumenggung Arjanegara's retirement as 1810, which is clearly wrong.
10. Leiden University Library, Bibliotheca Publica Latina 616 (H.G. Nahuys van Burgst private collection, henceforth 'NvB') Portfolio 3 No. 1, W.H. van Usseldijk
(aYmomgyunaiktaiornt*a) ftromA.GSrcehsiwkewnhkiech(Ghraedsibke),en10brDouegch.t 1[7?9i2nt(orepfeorrt]inbgyttohe'cashninpon'Daondg
gers Bank'); Ibid, to ibid., 22 Jan. 1793; and ibid, to A. Barkeij (Gezaghebber Oosthoek, Surabaya), 22 Jan. 1793 (referring to the dispatch of Sultan Hamengku-
- LbaumwmanearsI,Psan[dr. an17a9s2s-is1t8a1n0t/,1t8o11c-o1l2le/c1t82t6h-e28m]ucnoiatciohnms)a.nOnandthseerimgepanort-tatn-caermofs,tBhe. saltpetre (gunpowder) manufacture in Gresik and Surabaya at this time, see Stock-

A history of three Javanese bells 27
dale (1812: 383, 387).
11. See LOr 6842 (Babad Gresik), p. 189, on the gamelan pélog given by the dying Bupati of Gresik, Kyai Adipati Bratanegara, to Governor-General Van der Capel- len in 1826:
i'Pènged diwek Panjenenganipun Tuwan Baron fan der Kapèlen [Van der Capel- len], Gupenur-Géneral ing Betawi, ing dalem mangsa punika suwargi Kyai Adipat Bratanegara anyaosi bakti dhumateng Tuwan Gupenur-Géneral wau anenggih warni gamelan pélog sarancak. Telapakanipun sami karukmi saha praosan. Nan- ging taksih dèrèng kabakta dhateng Betawi, mangka sasédanipun Kyai Adipati Bratanegara. Menggah panjenanganipun kagentosan dhateng kang putra anama Kyai Tumenggung Brataadinegara. Lami anuju ing dinten Senèn tanggal 1 6 saking sasi Januwari taun 18 2 6 utawi tanggal ping 9 saking sasi Jumadilakir taun Wa[w]u [AJ] 17 5 3. Kyai Tumenggung wau tampi s[e]rat saking Tuwan Residhèn ing Tandhes A De Kornètes Dé Grut [A.D. Cornets de Groot, in office,
1825-26]. Kang awit saking karsanipun Tuwan Gupenur-Géneral, yen wau gamel andadoskaparingakendhatengKyaiTumenggungBrata-adinegarapiyambak, dados pertanda saking peparingipun Tuwan Gupenur-Géneral wau dhumateng Kyai Tumenggung Bratadinegara. Sinengkalan guna kapanca sapdané Jéndral [l 7 5 3].'
9 Jumadilakir AJ 1753 corresponds with Wednesday, 18 January 1826 (see Rouf- faer 1927; Balai Poestaka 1932: 15), but the correct date should be Monday, 16 January 1826.
12. The three-line inscription in Javanese characters can be found on the gender frame of the gamelan sléndro 'Kyai Retna-Dumilah' of the court of Bangkalan in Madura
(presently in the local museum of the Kabupatèn Bangkalan).
13. The three-line inscription in Javanese script on the gong ageng of the double gamelan 'Kyai Ruming Raras-Raras Rum1 at the Pakualaman court and which ori
ginally derived from the Surakarta kraton (Kasunanan) reads as follows: Line 1: '1'; Line 2: 'Kyai Lindhu-Panoh1', Line 3: 'wulan Sawal Bé angka: 1 8 0 8'. There was also a gong ageng of the same name listed amongst the pusaka of the Mang- kunegaran which had apparently been taken to Batavia, probably by Daendels (in office, 1808-11), see A[rsip] N[asional, Jakarta], 'Bundel Solo Brieven' No. 37, 'Rapporten 1810-11', p. 719, Pangéran Aria Prabu Prangwedana (Mangkunegara II, r. 1796-1835) to Boedelmeester Batavia, 16 Sawal AJ [? 1742] (? 23 Sept.
14. The numerical cipher is not clear in the Javanese inscription, but, according to calendrical logic it must be '1', see further below n. 15.
15. The numerical ciphers '173' were not legible in the Javanese inscription. Further more,the chronogram (candrasangkala) consists of only three instead of four words (each number of the year is usually signified by a separate word). This would seem that the first word of the chronogram (signifying the last digit of the Javanese year) is missing. Since only the '0' is legible in the list of numerical ciphers for the Javanese year, this would seem to indicate that 'kosong' ('empty'), which has the numerical value zero ('0'), is the missing word in the chronogram. Careful analysis of the calendrical arithmetic, and the Javanese calendar, indicates that the only time when the date when 1 Rabingulakir [taun] Jimakir fell on a Thursday Wage (Kemis Wage) during the latter part, or immediately after, Mangk unegara I's reign (1757-95) was AJ 1730 (1803/4).
16. I[ndia] O[ffice] L[ibrary], Jav. 98 (F), 'Pratélanipun abdi-Dalem Bupati ing Sur akarta sedaya', c. 1812.
17. AN, 'Bundel Solo Brieven' No. 37, 'Rapporten 1810-11', p. 719, Pangéran Aria Prabu Prangwedana (later Mangkunegara II, r. 1795-1835) to Boedelmeester Batav ia,16 Sawal AJ [? 1742] (? 23 Sept. 1815).

28 Amrit Gomperts & Peter Carey
18. One-line Javanese inscription under the saron barung instrument of the sléndro part of the gamelan 'Kyai Kanyut-Mèsem' of the Mangkunegaran court, Surakarta.
19. The three-line inscription in Javanese characters on the kenong of the double gamelan 'Kyai Jimat-DéwaKatong' of the Surakarta kraton (Kasunanan) reads as
Line 1: ' kagungan-Dalem kenong paringgitan,, agem-Dalem, kawitipun kagem
Ingkang Sinuhun Kangjeng Susuhunan
Line 2: 'Pakubuwana ingkang kaping sekawan, ing dinten malem S[e]lasa Legi tanggal ping 5 sasi
Line 3: 'Sura, ing taun Bé sinengkalan, catur warna pangandikaning ratu\
which, in English reads as follows:
Line 1: 'Royal kenong (large chime) for use in wayang [purwa] (shadow puppet theatre), for royal use, since it belongs to [the collection of] His Majesty the Susu hunan
Line 2: Takubuwana IV (r. 1788-1820). [This was made] on the eve of Tuesday Legi, the fifth of the [lunar] month
Line 3: 'Sura in the [sixth] year [of the eight-year windu cycle] Be, [and] the chronogram [was] 'fourfold is the appearance of the speech of the king' (ie AJ
1744, or Monday, 25 November 1816).
20. The fact that Radèn Tumenggung Puspakusuma II was Mantri Anom (a junior court official) before he became Kliwon Gedhong Kiwa is not mentioned in this inscription.
21. Dr André Lehr, p.c, April-June 1993.
22. Sound spectrum analysis carried out with a Hewlett-Packard Spectrum Analyzer HP 5420 with the following frequencies (accuracy frequency: +/- 2 Hz; accuracy sound pressure level: +/- 2 dB) revealed the following: (1) Fundamental Frequenc
Partial (#) Frequency to Fundamental Ratio: #1 1.74 (-7 dB), #2 2.11 (-22 dB), #3 2.65 (-10 dB), #4 3.01 (-8 dB), #5 3.37 (-16 dB), and #6 4.05 (-16 dB); and (3) Hum Tone (?): 0.36 (-14 dB).
0 Hz (O dB), which is approximately equivalent to pitch F#4; (2) Upper
A finite element computer method for analysing bells with the measured dimens ionsof the Gresik Bell was used by Dr Lehr to simulate its vibrational character istics.This confirmed quite accurately the above sound spectrum analysis, p.c. 26
April 1993. Both the sound spectrum and the vibrational characteristics reveal significant differences from equivalent European major third bells, see further
Fletcher and Rossing 1991: 578-91.
23. Cu: 78%, Sn: 22%, other metals: <1%, p.c. Dr André Lehr, 1989. 24. Cu: 70-80%, Sn: 20-30%, other metals: <1%.
25. 1. Yogyakarta: a gamelan belonging to the collection of the Museum Sonobudoyo and originating from the Yogyakarta kraton, contains three instruments whose wood work is clearly of Gresik origin - two gender frames and one gong stand. It is not clear what happened to the bronze instruments, but all the other available instruments and frames in the Museum are in Yogya kraton style dating from c.
1900-35. Apparently, the kraton destroyed the remnants of the old gamelan. 2. Bangkalan (Madura): remnants of seventeen more or less complete gamelan are at present scattered over three principal collections: (i) the Hilton Hotel (lobby), Jakarta; (ii) the museum of the Departemen P & K of the Kabupatèn Bangkalan in Bangkalan; and (iii) the private collection of the descendants of the last sultan of Bangkalan, a collection currently rotting below a lean-to in the remnants of the kraton (the decorations of these gamelan are identical with those of the Banjarma- sin gamelan, see below); 3. Banjermasin, Kutei and Pasir (Kalimantan): (i) three

A history of three Javanese bells 29
gamelan in the Museum Nasional in Jakarta originating from the court of Banjar- masin are identical in instrumentation and decoration to the drawings of gamelan from Gresik (Cornets de Groot 1852: 415-8; Raffles 1817: I 469-72); (ii) another gamelan from Gresik can be found in the local museum at Banjar Baru; (iii) there is a photograph of the now vanished gamelan of the former Sultan of Pasir which reveals some interesting details of its design, and (iv) remnants of the large game- lans of the former sultanate of Kutai, which originate from Gresik, are all in the local museum at Tenggarong. 4. Finally, there is a photograph of the vanished gamelan of the eighteenth and nineteenth-century Bupati (regents) of Surabaya in Faber (1931: 91). This shows an old East Javanese gamelan known as lrèntèng\ which is mentioned in the Gresik records. Today, this type of gamelan has disap peared completely from East Java.
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30 Amrit Gomperts & Peter Carey
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